Azpiroz, F., Hernandez, C., Guyonnet, D., Accarino, A., Santos, J., Malagelada, J.-R., & Guarner, F. (2014). Effect of a low-flatulogenic diet in patients with flatulence and functional digestive symptoms. Neurogastroenterology and Motility, 26(6), 779–785. doi:10.1111/nmo.12324

Biesiekierski, J. R., Newnham, E. D., Irving, P. M., Barrett, J. S., Haines, M., Doecke, J. D., ... Gibson, P. R. (2011). Gluten causes gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects without celiac disease: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 106(3), 508–514. doi:10.1038/ajg.2010.487

Biesiekierski, J. R., Peters, S. L., Newnham, E. D., Rosella, O., Muir, J. G., & Gibson, P. R. (2013). No effects of gluten in patients with self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity after dietary reduction of fermentable, poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates. Gastroenterology, 145(2), 320–328. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2013.04.051

Boyce, J. A., Assa'ad, A., Burks, A. W., Jones, S. M., Sampson, H. A., Wood, R. A., ... Schwaninger, J. M. (2010). Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States: report of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology (Vol. 126, pp. S1–58). Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.10.007

Chen, K., Li, F., Li, J., Cai, H., Strom, S., Bisello, A., ... Zhao, A. Z. (2006). Induction of leptin resistance through direct interaction of C-reactive protein with leptin. Nature Medicine, 12(4), 425–432. doi:10.1038/nm1372

Cordain, L., Eaton, S. B., Sebastian, A., Mann, N., Lindeberg, S., Watkins, B. A., ... Brand-Miller, J. (2005). Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81(2), 341–354.

De Oliveira, E. P., Burini, R. C., & Jeukendrup, A. (2014). Gastrointestinal complaints during exercise: prevalence, etiology, and nutritional recommendations. Sports Medicine, 44(Suppl 1), 79–85. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0153-2

Ellis, H. J., & Ciclitira, P. J. (2008). Should coeliac sufferers be allowed their oats? European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 20(6), 492–493. doi:10.1097/MEG.0b013e3282f465b0

Fasano, A. (2014). Introduction to Gluten Spectrum Disorders. In A. Fasano (Ed.), A Clinical Guide to Gluten-Related Disorder (pp. 19–24). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Fernández-Sánchez, A., Madrigal-Santillán, E., Bautista, M., Esquivel-Soto, J., Morales-González, A., Esquivel-Chirino, C., ... Morales-González, J. a. (2011). Inflammation, oxidative stress, and obesity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 12(5), 3117–32. doi:10.3390/ijms12053117

Food and Drug Administration. (2013). FDA defines "gluten-free" for food labeling. Retrieved from

Gibson, P. R., & Muir, J. G. (2013). Non-nutritional effects of food: an underutilized and understudied therapeutic tool in chronic gastrointestinal diseases. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 28(Suppl 4), 37–40. doi:10.1111/jgh.12253

Gibson, P. R., Newnham, E., Barrett, J. S., Shepherd, S. J., & Muir, J. G. (2007). Review article: fructose malabsorption and the bigger picture. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 25(4), 349–363. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.03186.x

Heaney, R. P. (2013). Dairy intake, dietary adequacy, and lactose intolerance. Advances in Nutrition, 4, 151&ndash156. doi:10.3945/an.112.003368.Figure

Klurfeld, D. M., Foreyt, J., Angelopoulos, T. J., & Rippe, J. M. (2013). Lack of evidence for high fructose corn syrup as the cause of the obesity epidemic. International Journal of Obesity, 37(6), 771–773. doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.157

Ledochowski, M., Widner, B., Bair, H., Probst, T., & Fuchs, D. (2000). Fructose- and sorbitol-reduced diet improves mood and gastrointestinal disturbances in fructose malabsorbers. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 35(10), 1048&ndash1052.

Lee, A. R., Ng, D. L., Zivin, J., & Green, P. H. R. (2007). Economic burden of a gluten-free diet. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: The Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association, 20(5), 423–30. doi:10.1111/j.1365-277X.2007.00763.x

Lindeberg, S. (2012a). Dietary shifts and human health: cancer and cardiovascular disease in a sustainable world. Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer, 43(1), 8–12. doi:10.1007/s12029-011-9345-2

Lindeberg, S. (2012b). Paleolithic diets as a model for prevention and treatment of Western disease. American Journal of Human Biology, 24(2), 110–115. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22218

Lohi, S., Mustalahti, K., Kaukinen, K., Laurila, K., Collin, P., Rissanen, H., ... Mäki, M. (2007). Increasing prevalence of coeliac disease over time. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 26(9), 1217–1225. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03502.x

Matthews, R. H., Pehrsson, P. R., & Farhat-Sabet, M. (1987). Sugar Content of Selected Foods: Individual and Total Sugars (pp. 1–39). Retrieved from

Megiorni, F., Mora, B., Bonamico, M., Barbato, M., Montuori, M., Viola, F., ... Mazzilli, M. C. (2008). HLA-DQ and susceptibility to celiac disease: evidence for gender differences and parent-of-origin effects. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 103(4), 997-1003. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2007.01716.x

Mercader, J. (2009). Mozambican grass seed consumption during the Middle Stone Age. Science, 326(5960), 1680–1683. doi:10.1126/science.1173966

Moodie, R., Stuckler, D., Monteiro, C., Sheron, N., Neal, B., Thamarangsi, T., ... Casswell, S. (2013). Profits and pandemics: prevention of harmful effects of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries. Lancet, 381(9867), 670–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)62089-3

Murray, J. A., van Dyke, C., Plevak, M. F., Dierkhising, R. A., Zinsmeister, A. R., & Melton, L. J. I. (2003). Trends in the identification and clinical features of celiac disease in a North American community, 1950–2001. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 1(1), 19–27.

Niec, A. M., Frankum, B., & Talley, N. J. (1998). Are adverse food reactions linked to irritable bowel syndrome? The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 93(11), 2184–2190. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.1998.00531.x

Pearce, J., & O Hunter, J. (2011). Nutrition and the Gastrointestinal Tract for Athletes. In S. Lanham-New, S. Stear, S. Shirreffs, & A. Collins (Eds.), Sport and Exercise Nutrition (pp. 264–280). Wiley-Blackwell.

Riddoch, C., & Trinick, T. (1988). Gastrointestinal disturbances in marathon runners. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 22(2), 71–74.

Rodriguez, N. R., Dimarco, N. M., & Langley, S. (2010). Nutrition and athletic performance (pp. 1–41). Retrieved from

Saturni, L., Ferretti, G., & Bacchetti, T. (2010). The gluten-free diet: Safety and nutritional quality. Nutrients, 2(1), 16–34. doi:10.3390/nu2010016

Schuldt, J. P., & Schwarz, N. (2010). The "organic" path to obesity? Organic claims influence calorie judgments and exercise recommendations. Judgement and Decision Making, 5(3), 144–150.

Sekirov, I., Russell, S. L., Antunes, L. C. M., & Finlay, B. B. (2010). Gut microbiota in health and disease. Physiology Reviews, 90, 859-904. doi:10.1152/physrev.00045.2009.

Simmons, A. L., Schlezinger, J. J., & Corkey, B. E. (2014). What are we putting in our food that is making us fat? Food additives, contaminants, and other putative contributors to obesity. Current Obesity Reports, 3(2), 273–285. doi:10.1007/s13679-014-0094-y

Singh, J., & Whelan, K. (2011). Limited availability and higher cost of gluten-free foods. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 24(5), 479-486. doi:10.1111/j.1365-277X.2011.01160.x

Skoog, S. M., & Bharucha, A. E. (2004). Dietary fructose and gastrointestinal symptoms: a review. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 99(10), 2046–2050. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2004.40266.x

Soares, F. L. P., de Oliveira Matoso, R., Teixeira, L. G., Menezes, Z., Pereira, S. S., Alves, A. C., ... Alvarez-Leite, J. I. (2013). Gluten-free diet reduces adiposity, inflammation and insulin resistance associated with the induction of PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma expression. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 24(6), 1105–1111. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.08.009

Truswell, A. S., Seach, J. M., & Thornburn, A. W. (1988). Incomplete absorption of pure fructose and the facilitating effect of glucose3. American Journal of Clinical Nutriton, 48, 1424–1430.

Walter, J., & Ley, R. (2011). The human gut microbiome: ecology and recent evolutionary changes. Annual Review of Microbiology, 65, 411–429. doi:10.1146/annurev-micro-090110-102830