Valine
Valine is an essential amino acid (it cannot be produced by the body) and a branched chain amino acid (BCAA). Valine is usually found in supplements in combination with the other BCAAs, leucine and isoleucine, for maximal effect on stimulating muscle protein synthesis. There is preliminary evidence that valine reduces central fatigue, but more research is necessary to confirm these findings.

Vanadium
Vanadium is an element that is found in small quantities in our food supply and especially in mushrooms, green beans, and cereals. It has not been deemed an essential trace mineral, but it likely is necessary for normal growth and development. The consequence of a deficiency of vanadium is unknown. Vanadium sulfate at 60 mg/day is advertised to increase muscle mass and decrease body fat. However, there is no scientific evidence to support this claim.

Oxygenated water
Oxygenated water (or "Vitamin O") contains dissolved oxygen (O2). It is not currently known if oxygen can be absorbed through the gut into the bloodstream. Only three studies have evaluated the effects of oxygenated water on sports performance and none have shown benefits.

Key practice applications: Valine can help build muscle when combined with other branched chain amino acids leucine and isoleucine, but there is not current evidence to support use of valine alone is sports performance. Neither vanadium nor oxygenated water have any evidence of efficacy in sports performance.