This review covers some aspects of the optimal nutritional strategy for recovery from prolonged moderate- to high-intensity exercise. The most effective way to rapidly replenish depleted glycogen reserves is likely to involve ingesting a high GI carbohydrate source at a rate of at least 1 g/kg/hour (when ingested alone) or ≤ 0.8 g/kg/hour (when ≥ 0.3 g/kg/hour protein is added), beginning immediately after exercise and then at frequent (ie, 15- to 30-minute) intervals thereafter. Some studies have reported improved physical performance with ingestion of carbohydrate-protein mixtures, yet many equally well-controlled studies do not support these findings. Far fewer studies have examined the relationship between carbohydrate intake and exercise capacity. Future research is warranted to determine the precise causal relationships between post-exercise carbohydrate intake, muscle glycogen resynthesis, and restoration of physical performance.