It is difficult to definitively determine whether there is a relationship between meal frequency and body composition due to confounding variables such as exercise, under-reporting (which is common in both obese and non-obese populations), and smoking status. Overall, the evidence does not support a role for increased meal frequency alone in decreasing weight or improving body composition. This is somewhat surprising given the colloquial understanding of the “benefits” of increased meal frequency. However, additional effects of increased meal frequency may still have an indirect role in aiding subjects in weight loss. Improvements in lipoproteins and glucose metabolism have significant effects on overall health, and improved glucose metabolism may discourage binge eating. In addition, subjects who ate meals more frequently reported higher levels of satiety and thus may eat less overall. These factors will undeniably affect body weight composition and weight loss. Indeed, the authors suggest that the potential to decrease feelings of hunger is, in and of itself, a possible justification to promote smaller, more frequent meals. A limitation of this publication is the lack of a definition for “adequate intake of protein.”