Filters
Sections
Categories
Date Range
Ingredients

You are now viewing content from other dietary supplements ergogenic aids. To search on content not specified in the filters, use the global search box above.

Approximately 124 documents matched your search.
  1. Should performance enhancing drugs in sport be legalized under medical supervision? (A review)

      It is believed that some of the greatest sports achievements made were possible due to use of performance-enhancing substances. Some argue that permitting the use of performance-enhancing substances would eliminate “the fairness argument” since the use of drugs would no longer...

  2. 3/4/2011 / Caffeine - Not just a stimulant (Review)

    This article reviews the effects of caffeine on a number of different physiological and human performance endpoints. The safety of caffeine was also evaluated. In general, the author came to these conclusions regarding moderate intakes of caffeine: 1) increased energy availability; 2) increased...

  3. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves rowing performance in well-trained rowers

    Supplementation with beetroot juice for 6 days increased high-intensity rowing performance, especially sprints that were completed in the later stages of the evaluation

  4. The effect of acute pre–exercise dark chocolate consumption on plasma antioxidant status, oxidative stress and immunoendocrine responses to prolonged exercise

    Consumption of dark chocolate 2 hrs before exercise leads to an increase in antioxidant status and an attenuation of exercise–induced oxidative stress. It also led to an increase in insulin and glucose concentrations before and after exercise, respectively. However, it is unknown how this...

  5. Making Your Fluids Work Harder When You Work Hard

     Water is an unassuming nutrient in the scheme of diet and fitness.  Most of us focus on nutrients that give energy, build stronger bones and muscle, or have key metabolic action in our bodies.  Water is the one that, among other roles, provides the foundation upon which all other...

  6. Nitrate supplementation’s improvement of 10-km time-trial performance in trained cyclists

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a compound that increases blood flow and improves muscle contractibility, among other biological effects that could benefit athletes. Dietary nitrate and nitrite can be converted to NO within the body. Specifically, it has been shown that 0.5 L (about 2 cups) of beetroot...

  7. A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance- Part 33

    Read a research article that briefly reviews quercetin, resveratrol, and Rhodiola rosea, and discusses their effects on sports performance and exercise improvement.

  8. 3/4/2011 /The effects of polyethylene glycosylated creatine supplementation on muscular strength and power

     Creatine is converted to phosphocreatine in the body, which plays a vital role in cellular energy production and muscle function. Creatine monohydrate supplementation coupled with resistance training has been demonstrated to improve multiple performance-related variables, and it is believed...

  9. Effects of combined creatine plus fenugreek extract vs. creatine plus carbohydrate supplementation on resistance training adaptations

    Creatine is one of the most widely used performance-enhancing supplements due to its safety and efficacy. There is some evidence that simultaneous carbohydrate intake helps increase creatine absorption, but high levels of simple sugars can lead to unhealthful spikes in blood sugar. Fenugreek seed,...

  10. 3/4/2011 / Antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of whey protein and Spirulina in rats

    Recent interest in the use of antioxidant nutritional supplements has been sparked by epidemiologic evidence suggesting that dietary antioxidants in food constituents may protect against or prevent heart disease, cancer, and the aging process. Whey protein concentrates (WPCs) derived from milk may...

  11. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: Where is the evidenc

    There is not significance evidence that any weight loss supplement is effective at promoting weight loss and keeping the weight off, but many studies are short (14 wks or less) and do not follow up with participants. A healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and exercise is recommended for...

  12. 3/4/2011 / Effects of L-carnitine on oxidative stress responses in patients with renal disease

    Hemodialysis of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may deplete L-carnitine, an antioxidant that also functions in fat metabolism, potentially contributing to increased morbidity, mortality, and reduced quality of life. Although regular exercise is beneficial in patients with ESRD,...

  13. 3/4/2011 /Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and repeated swim sprint performance

     It has been suggested that localized skeletal muscle fatigue is linked to the body's buffering capacity and, specifically, the ability to counteract H+ accumulation. Research has focused on inducing pre-exercise alkalosis in the form of an exogenous buffer. One of the most common is sodium...

  14. Fish Oil: Frequently Asked Questions

    What will fish oil do for me?

    Fish oil is an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). EPA is an important signaling molecule in the biochemical pathways related to growth and inflammation, and DHA a primary...

  15. Whole beetroot consumption acutely improves running performance

    Nitrate concentrations were not measured in this study, only calculated from previous studies. There is a chance that the amount of nitrate was much higher or lower than the researchers expected.

  16. 3/4/2011 / Effects of capsinoid ingestion on energy expenditure and lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise

    Capsinoid ingestion 30 min prior to exercise would generally induce metabolic changes consistent with increased metabolic rate and lipid oxidation, namely: elevating resting oxygen consumption; a shift in metabolism (respiratory exchange ration [RER] towards greater lipid oxidation; and increase...

  17. Bovine colostrum supplementation’s lack of effect on immune variables during short-term intense exercise in well-trained athletes

    Prolonged (> 1.5 hr), continuous, moderate to high intensity exercise performed in a fasted state affects both the innate and adaptive immune systems, creating a period of ~ 3 to 24 hours postexercise when athletes are vulnerable to infections, especially upper respiratory tract infection...

  18. The use of nutritional supplements among recreational athletes in Athens, Greece

    Nutritional supplements are used in the general population to overcome nutritional deficiencies and augment overall quality of health and physical performance. However, excessive intake of supplements may cause adverse events, and professional guidance on use of such products is recommended.

  19. 3/4/2011 / Acute effect of nitric oxide supplement on blood nitrate/nitrite and hemodynamic variables in resistance trained men

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a natural signaling molecule that is responsible for vasodilation. Vasodilation is improves blood flow and, therefore, increase the rate of both nutrient delivery to and waste removal from skeletal muscle. Consequently, dietary strategies for increasing nitric oxide production...

  20. Effect of a pre-workout energy supplement on acute multi-joint resistance exercise

    The participants were able to perform more repetitions in 4 sets with the supplement (26.3 ± 9.2) than with the placebo (23.5 ± 9.4 repetitions; p = 0.022). The supplement improved the performance for 6 of the 8 participants.

  21. Regular dark chocolate consumption’s reduction of oxidative stress and increase of free-fatty-acid mobilization in response to prolonged cycling

    Physical activity increases production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can lead to oxidative stress, acute-phase inflammatory responses, and possible acceleration of muscle-fatigue development. A number of studies have demonstrated that supplementation with antioxidants can reduce the...

  22. ß-Alanine improves punch force and frequency in amateur boxers during a simulated contest

    β-Alanine supplementation led to an increase in boxing performance (measured by force of punches) and exercise capacity (measured by number of punches) in a simulated boxing competition.  It is thought that β-alanine increased that amount of buffering capacity in the muscle, thereby...

  23. The effects of IQPLUS Focus on cognitive function, mood and endocrine response before and following acute exercise

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a naturally occurring phospholipid in plant and animal cell membranes that serves many regulatory and signaling functions. A typical Western diet includes ~130 mg/day of PS. Endocrine and cognitive functions may be affected by PS levels, and supplementation may further...

  24. β-alanine supplementation improves YoYo intermittent recovery test performance

    Twelve weeks of supplementation with 3.2 g β-alanine per day improved the performance of amateur soccer players on a soccer match-simulated exercise task.

  25. 3/4/2011 /A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance: part 15

    This brief review article summarized existing research findings examining biologic effects of flavonoids and their role in reduction of exercise-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune dysfunction.

  26. 3/4/2011 / Increased blood pH but not performance with sodium bicarbonate supplementation in elite rugby union players

    High intensity, short duration activity relies on the anaerobic, glycolytic pathway which produces lactate and hydrogen ions (H+) as by products. Bicarbonate (HCO3-) is the most abundant acid buffer in blood. The bicarbonate pool is small and, when the...

  27. A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance–part 25

    The authors have written a brief review of melatonin, methylsulphonylmethane (MSM), and melamine. Melatonin is a hormone that has effects on circadian rhythms, sleep onset, and reproductive systems. Athletes may be interested in melatonin supplements to enhance heat loss during exercise and...

  28. Antiobesity effects of green tea catechins: a mechanistic review

    The authors describe several studies discussing potential antiobesity mechanisms of GTCs. These mechanisms include increased energy expenditure, increased fat oxidation, decreased appetite, and decreased nutrient absorption. The evidence supporting benefit of tea consumption or supplementation...

  29. 3/4/2011 / The effect of acute taurine ingestion on endurance performance and metabolism in well-trained cyclists

     Does acute taurine intake (1.66 g) affect the average time it takes to complete a cycling time trial?

  30. Hormonal responses to resistance exercise after ingestion of carnosine and anserine

    Carnosine (-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide (pair of 2 amino acids) that acts to buffer pH in skeletal muscle. Anserine (-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine) is not present in human muscle but it is thought, when anserine is catabolized into -alanine and methylhistidine, these compounds will be...

  31. Effects of lactate consumption on blood bicarbonate levels and performance during high-intensity exercise

    The effects on blood from using sodium verus calcium bound to lactate are unknown. A limitation of this study is the use of time to exhaustion and its poor reliability. The results were presented as percentage of improvement to reduce intersubject variance, but time-trial formats may be a more...

  32. Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on muscle damage and oxidative stress markers in elite young soccer players

    Long-term supplementation with astaxanthin attenuated exercise-induced muscle damage during a soccer practice. Although some oxidative stress is beneficial in initiating the development of defense mechanisms, oxidative stress can be overwhelming in athletes that train intensely and/or bear other...

  33. Dietary supplementation habits and perceptions of supplement use among elite Finnish athletes

    Interpretation of findings/Key practice applications: Overall, dietary supplement usage decreased among elite athletes in Finland from 2002 to 2009. Although this study was large enough to detect small changes in dietary supplement usage, no examples for each category were...

  34. Oral hydroxycitrate supplementation enhances glycogen synthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle

    As a post-exercise supplement, HCA appeared to allow for faster recovery of glycogen stores. These data suggest that HCA may promote fat vs. glucose oxidation, which would tend to preserve glycogen. It would be interesting to see if HCA could improve performance at a subsequent exercise session.

  35. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during a 100-km ultra-marathon- A randomized controlled trial

    There were several parameters in this study that were not assessed that may have helped control the study. First of all, there was no placebo supplement. Placebos are helpful because they place the athletes in the same psychological state, removing bias associated with greater mental expectation...

  36. 3/4/2010 / Effects of various sodium bicarbonate loading protocols on the time-dependent extracellular buffering profile

    Although much research has investigated the types of exercise that are enhanced with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion, to date there has been limited research on the dosage and timing of ingestion that optimizes the associated ergogenic effects.

  37. 3/4/2011 / Use of performance- and image-enhancing substances among recreational athletes: a quantitative analysis of inquiries submitted to the Danish anti-doping authorities

    It is difficult to determine what percentage of recreational athletes use performance- and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) world-wide, but a few questionnaires have suggested that use is not trivial. Many PIEDs include substances that have been banned by the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA) and are...

  38. 3/4/2011 / Acute supplementation with keto analogues and amino acids in rats during resistance exercise

    Ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4+) are produced during exercise as a result of the breakdown of amino acids for energy or the deamination of AMP. Ammonia compounds are toxic and excreted as ammonium in the urine. However, during exercise, production exceeds the rate...

  39. 3/4/2011 / Effects of a fruit-berry-vegetable supplement on muscle function and oxidative stress

    Exercise of sufficient intensity and duration can result in skeletal muscle damage. This is particularly true with exercise that includes unaccustomed lengthening type actions (eccentric actions) due to, in part, the greater force being exerted within the muscle with this type of movement. The...

  40. 3/4/2011 / The effect of L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion on performance during incremental exhaustive ergometer bicycle exercise and ammonia metabolism during and after exercise

    During exercise, ammonia (NH4+) resulting from protein oxidation can accumulate in the muscle and, among other factors, is a potential cause muscle fatigue. Ammonia and lactic acid disrupt pH homeostasis in the muscle and ammonia can consume inosinic acid that is used to make...

  41. 3/4/2011 / Effect of dihydrocapsiate on resting metabolic rate in humans

    Capsaicin, which is naturally found in chili peppers, has been shown to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation, possibly through sympathetic nervous system stimulation or catecholamine release. However, the pungency of capsaicin limits its use in many individuals. Dihydrocapsiate is a...

  42. 3/4/2011 / : Long-term glycine propionyl-l-carnitine supplementation and paradoxical effects on repeated anaerobic sprint performance

    Success in endurance sports is related to an ability to continue with relatively high efforts for extended periods of time. While numerous factors underlie exercise capacity, a primary consideration is that of energy demand vs energy supply. It has been demonstrated that acute glycine...

  43. 3/4/2011 / Promoting functional foods as acceptable alternatives to doping: potential for information-based social marketing approach

    Performance enhancing agents include functional foods (FF), dietary supplements, and prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED). Anti-doping campaigns have typically focused on the negative consequences associated with PEDs, rather than offering comparable or alternative options for improved...

  44. 3/4/2011 / Berberine-induced activation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and glucose transport in rat skeletal muscles

    Exercise and insulin stimulate the uptake of glucose into skeletal muscle via glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) develop insulin resistance and experience reduced uptake and metabolism of plasma glucose by skeletal muscle, resulting in hyperglycemia. Glucose...

  45. 3/4/2011 / Carbohydrate oxidation from a carbohydrate gel compared to a drink during exercise

    Ingestion of solutions with glucose (GLU) and fructose (FRC) leads to 20%-50% higher carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation rates compared with GLU alone. It is hypothesized that a high GLU oxidation rate may be beneficial to delay fatigue, increase endurance, and enhance performance, especially late in...

  46. 3/4/2011 / The effects of a commercially available botanical supplement on strength, body composition, power output, and hormonal profiles in resistance-trained males

    In preclinical and clinical studies, extracts of the fenugreek plant (ie, Trigonella foenum-graecum) lowered blood glucose levels and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Animal models report that ingesting fenugreek seeds improved lipid profiles by lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride...

  47. 3/4/2011 / Acute L-arginine supplementation reduces the O2 cost of moderate-intensity exercise and enhances high-intensity exercise tolerance

    Dietary supplementation with arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, might reduce the O2 cost of moderate-intensity exercise and enhance exercise tolerance during severe intensity exercise.

  48. 3/4/2011 / L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women

     To examine the effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate (LCLT) supplementation on markers of recovery from physical exertion in men and women between 40 and 65 years of age Subjects: A total of 9 men and 9 women, mean age of 45 and 52 years for males and females, respectively, participated in the...

  49. 3/4/2011 / Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study

     Assess the effects of 10 weeks of once-daily consumption of a low-calorie energy drink, either alone or in combination with exercise, on body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, upper- and lower-body strength, mood, and safety variables

  50. 3/4/2011 / Dietary supplements and team-sport performance

    This review discusses the current clinical evidence for the effects of several dietary supplements in team-sport performance enhancement. Team-sport performance relies on multiple abilities, including speed, strength, power, and repeated and intermittent sprints; dietary supplements that improve a...

  51. 3/4/2011 / Effect of purple sweet potato leaves consumption on exercise-induced oxidative stress and IL-6 and HSP72 levels

     Exercise induces oxidative stress that can be combated to various extents by consuming antioxidants. Purple sweet potato leaves (PSPLs) have high amounts of polyphenol and flavonoid antioxidants.

  52. 3/4/2011 /The prevalence of vitamin supplementation in ultraendurance triathletes

    Ultraendurance athletes, as those training for an Ironman or an Olympic-distance triathlon, can undertake 14.5-21 hrs of training per week, or more. Matching energy intake as well as vitamin and mineral intake is important for best performance and for optimum health. The benefits of vitamin and...

  53. 3/4/2011 /Astaxanthin addition improves human neutrophils function: in vitro study

     Astaxanthin (ASTA) is a red-orange carotenoid that is produced by aquatic microalgae and accumulates in sea creatures such as shrimp and lobster. ASTA has been touted for high antioxidant activity and other potential health benefits including anti-inflammation and anti-cancer. Neutrophils...

  54. 3/4/2011 /Leucine supplementation of a low-protein meal increases skeletal muscle and visceral tissue protein synthesis in neonatal pigs by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation

     Amino acids serve as precursors for protein synthesis and also as cellular signaling molecules to regulate protein synthesis. Leucine (Leu), a branched chain amino acid, consistently stimulates protein synthesis. There is evidence that Leu works through the mTOR signaling pathway via...

  55. 3/4/2011 / Nine weeks of supplementation with a multi-nutrient product augments gains in lean mass, strength, and muscular performance in resistance trained men.

     Creatine monohydrate, carbohydrates, and protein, when consumed before or during one's workout, have consistently shown to increase the gains from resistance training. Many supplements contain these ingredients, often in conjunction with other active ingredients. It is possible that other...

  56. 3/4/2011 / Effects of a purported aromatase and 5 a-reductase inhibitor on hormone profiles in college age men

     Testosterone levels are related to many physiologic conditions such as protein synthesis, muscle strength, fat oxidation, and adiposity. Therefore, research into improving exercise performance has focused on supplementation with testosterone precursors or derivatives to increase the levels...

  57. 3/4/2011 / Antioxidant supplementation had positive effects in old rat muscle, but through better oxidative status in other organs

     Sarcopenia (age-related muscle mass loss) is a major public health problem affecting individuals in the rapidly increasing elderly population. One of the mechanisms proposed for the development of sarcopenia is an oxidative stress-mediated imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation...

  58. 3/4/2011 /The effects of acute and prolonged CRAM supplementation on reaction time and subjective measures of focus and alertness in healthy college students

     Phosphatidylcholine is a cellular membrane phospholipid that is necessary for both structural integrity as well as physiologic functions. Choline is also essential in the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and has a potential role in neuromuscular signaling, which could produce...

  59. 3/4/2011 /PAKs supplement improves immune status and body composition but not muscle strength in resistance trained individuals

     Mixed formula supplements are very popular among recreational and professional weightlifters. Often known as PAKs, these dietary supplements consist of several pills/tablets packaged in the same envelope and are meant to be ingested together. They are intended to provide the consumer with...

  60. 3/4/2011 /Muscle full effect after oral protein: time-dependent concordance and discordance between human muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling

     Human muscle protein synthesis (MPS) increases following ingestion or infusion of amino acids (AAs) followed by a plateau at ~120 minutes and return to postabsorptive rates. This return to postabsorptive rates occurs despite continued availability of AAs, in what is called the ?muscle full?...

  61. 3/4/2011 /Effect of dihydrocapsiate on resting metabolic rate in humans

    Background: Capsaicin, which is naturally found in chili peppers, has been shown to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation, possibly through sympathetic nervous system stimulation or catecholamine release. However, the pungency of capsaicin limits its use in many individuals....

  62. 3/4/2011 /Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and repeated swim sprint performance

    It has been suggested that localized skeletal muscle fatigue is linked to the body's buffering capacity and, specifically, the ability to counteract H+ accumulation. Research has focused on inducing pre-exercise alkalosis in the form of an exogenous buffer. One of the most common is sodium...

  63. 3/4/2011 /Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match

    Tennis is a repetitive short-term high-intensity sport. As such, it could result in significant neuromuscular fatigue and decreased skill performance. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and other alkalinizing agents have been proposed as potential performance aids for their effects on providing increased...

  64. 3/4/2011 /A 12-week supplementation with quercetin does not affect natural killer cell activity granulocyte oxidative burst activity or granulocyte phagocytosis in female human subjects

    The most prominent flavonoids in fruits and vegetables are flavonols, of which quercetin is the most commonly consumed in the human diet. Quercetin is a strong antioxidant with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and immune-modulating properties. Total dietary flavonol intake estimates for US adults...

  65. 3/4/2011 /Berberine-induced activation of 5-adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase and glucose transport in rat skeletal muscles

    Exercise and insulin stimulate the uptake of glucose into skeletal muscle via glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) develop insulin resistance and experience reduced uptake and metabolism of plasma glucose by skeletal muscle, resulting in hyperglycemia. Glucose...

  66. 3/4/2011 /Long-term glycine propionyl-l-carnitine supplementation and paradoxical effects on repeated anaerobic sprint performance

     Success in endurance sports is related to an ability to continue with relatively high efforts for extended periods of time. While numerous factors underlie exercise capacity, a primary consideration is that of energy demand vs energy supply. It has been demonstrated that acute glycine...

  67. 3/4/2011 /Promoting functional foods as acceptable alternatives to doping potential for information-based social marketing approach

     Performance enhancing agents include functional foods (FF), dietary supplements, and prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED). Anti-doping campaigns have typically focused on the negative consequences associated with PEDs, rather than offering comparable or alternative options for...

  68. 3/4/2011 /A-Z of nutritional supplements dietary supplements sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance- Part 16

    This review covers the use of folate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), gamma-oryzanol, ferulic acid, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and gamma-butyrolactone in sports performance.

  69. 3/4/2011 /Multi-organ dysfunction in bodybuilding possibly caused by prolonged hypercalcemia due to multi-substance abuse Case report and review of literature

     It is often difficult to identify causes of severe ailments of bodybuilders because many bodybuilders have histories of legal or illegal substance abuse and often, either deliberately or unintentionally, do not or cannot declare their entire history of pharmaceutical ingestion. The negative...

  70. 3/4/2011 /Use of dietary supplements in Olympic athletes is decreasing a follow-up study between 2002 and 2009

    Dietary supplements (DS) including multivitamins, minerals, protein, and energy drinks are used by athletes to increase strength and energy and to enhance athletic performance. Two reports suggest that DS use is increasing, especially among elite athletes.

  71. Use of dietary supplements in Olympic athletes is decreasing: a follow-up study between 2002 and 2009

    Dietary supplements (DS) including multivitamins, minerals, protein, and energy drinks are used by athletes to increase strength and energy and to enhance athletic performance. Two reports suggest that DS use is increasing, especially among elite athletes.

  72. Multi-organ dysfunction in bodybuilding possibly caused by prolonged hypercalcemia due to multi-substance abuse: Case report and review of literature

    It is often difficult to identify causes of severe ailments of bodybuilders because many bodybuilders have histories of legal or illegal substance abuse and often, either deliberately or unintentionally, do not or cannot declare their entire history of pharmaceutical ingestion. The negative side...

  73. Nutritional modulation of training-induced skeletal muscle adaptations

    Skeletal muscle is remarkably malleable and is able to adapt its metabolic and functional potential in response to both external stimuli, such as exercise, and to internal modulators, such as nutrient availability. In this review, the authors examined the effect of nutrient-exercise interactions...

  74. BJSM reviews: A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance. Part 17

    When consuming or studying herbal supplements, one must remember that bioactive compounds can vary drastically with the growing conditions of the plant. At this point, concentrations of bioactives are not regulated in most herbal supplements and one cannot rely on uniformity from one batch to the...

  75. Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of walking and running: a placebo-controlled study

    Supplementation with beetroot juice has been shown to lower resting blood pressure and the oxygen cost of submaximal exercise. It has been suggested that beetroot juice effectiveness is attributed to the high nitrate (NO3) concentration, which can be converted to bioactive NO2 and nitric oxide....

  76. Dietary supplement use in the United States, 2003-2006

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) has collected data on the use of dietary supplements in the United States since the early 1970s and has shown an increased use through the early 1990s.

  77. Stanozolol treatment decreases the mitochondrial ROS generation and oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rat skeletal muscle

    Although anabolic androgenic steroids are commonly used to increase muscle mass and improve muscle fatigue resistance, little is known about their actual mechanism of action in skeletal muscle. Previous research supports a role for sex hormones in redox homeostasis. Specifically, it has been...

  78. Simvastatin represses protein synthesis in the muscle-derived C2C12 cell line with a concomitant reduction in eukaryotic initiation factor 2B expression

    Statins are drugs commonly used for lowering cholesterol. A negative side effect that has been reported while taking statins is muscle weakness. There is evidence that statins may interfere with expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B), which is cellular protein that promotes muscle...

  79. Effect of quercetin supplementation on repeated-sprint performance, xanthine oxidase activity, and inflammation

    Xanthine oxidase is an enzyme that converts hypoxanthine to xanthine and then xanthine to uric acid. It is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during exercise, especially sprinting. ROS cause oxidative stress, which can cause an increase in inflammatory cytokines (signaling molecules)....

  80. Dietary supplementation patterns of Korean Olympic Athletes participating in the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games

    Many elite athletes report frequent use of dietary supplements. Previous reports indicate that between 45% and 74% of Olympic athletes take supplements during both training periods and Olympic games. The authors noted a study indicating that the prevalence of use of Oriental dietary supplements is...

  81. Dietary supplements and medications in elite sport- polypharmacy or real need?

    Athletes often consume dietary supplements and/or mediations (such as ibuprofen) to enhance health and performance and to accelerate recovery.

  82. Effects of oral supplementation with plant superoxide dismutase extract on selected redox parameters and an inflammatory marker in a 2,000-m rowing-ergometer test

    Physical exercise is known to cause increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can potentially overreach antioxidant capacity. The resultant oxidative stress leads to damaged DNA, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, and may result in cell dysfunction or death. Enhancing the...

  83. Bioavailable IGF-I is associated with fat-free mass gains after physical training in women

    Bioavailable IGF-I correlates better with increases in fat free muscle mass than total circulating IGF-I. This could be of clinical significance, because it showed that women who initiate training with lower than average concentrations of bioavailable IGF-I have greater potential to gain muscle...

  84. How much is too much? A case report of nutritional supplement use of a high-performance athlete

    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are emphasized in our society, and supplementation is widely used. It is important for people who take supplements to be aware of every compound that is in their supplements, and to compare labels of every supplement they are taking to avoid excess consumption. It...

  85. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on [HCO3-], pH, and gastrointestinal symptoms

    This study answered several questions regarding the “optimal” administration of NaHCO3 for athletes. The dose was fixed at 300 mg/kg based on previous work that has already established this dose (higher doses tend to cause more gastrointestinal distress). The authors did not examine...

  86. Effect of Phlebodium decumanum on the immune response by training in sedentary university students

    Root from PD may reduce levels of inflammation, even with moderate physical activity.

  87. Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances exercise performance in peripheral arterial disease

    An acute dose of beetroot juice increased the time of pain-free walking and the time to exhaustion to 1/3 the extent of a 3 month exercise intervention in PAD participants. This shows that beetroot juice provides a significant benefit to this population during physical activity and could increase...

  88. quercitin, vitamin C, niacin, body mass, body weight, body composition, weight control

    This study showed no apparent effects of quercitin supplementation on body mass or composition within a large cohort of subjects. The study had a large sample size and may be representative of how many people in the general population might use a quercitin supplement (e.g., adding it to normal...

  89. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves cycling time trial performance

    Two key advantages to this study are: 1) the crossover design to reduce inter-individual variability; and 2) the use of a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice as the placebo to isolate nitrate content as the active component. Beetroot juice appears to increase performance in cyclists when performing...

  90. Reply to Lundberg, Larsen, and Weitzberg

    The author did not discuss whether the benefits of nitrate/nitrite supplementation outweigh the risks for healthy individuals with normal circulation who would like to supplement for the purpose of gaining endurance in sports events.

  91. Montmorency cherry juice reduces muscle damage caused by intensive strength exercise

    Interpretation of findings/Key practice applications: Knee strength recovery was faster during the consumption of Montmorency cherry juice compared with a placebo. In addition, serum PC values were lower in the CA trials, which indicate less oxidative damage. However, muscle...

  92. Effect of endurance training supplemented with green tea extract on substrate metabolism during exercise in humans

    Limitations:  The authors suggest that an increase in exercise with GTE supplementation increases the rate of fat burning, which in turn can promote weight loss.  The increase in aerobic capacity of the subjects during the supplementation period implies that the...

  93. Reply to Lundberg, Larsen, and Weitzberg

    Supplementation with nitrate and nitrite salts in exercise

  94. The acute effect of ingesting a quercetin-based supplement on exercise-induced inflammation and immune changes in runners

    Although these 2 studies were compared directly, there were differences other than the duration of supplementation between them, for example, the length of exercise.  It is unknown whether performance benefits were seen after only 2 hrs when the subjects consumed the supplements for 2 wks.

  95. Supplementation with nitrate and nitrite salts in exercise: a word of caution

    Second, nitrates and nitrites have been used for many years as preservatives for foods such as processed meats. It has been proposed that nitrate/nitrite consumption can lead to the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds when they react with secondary amines or n-alkylamides in the...

  96. Effect of mixed flavonoids, n-3 fatty acids, and vitamin C on oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity before and after intense cycling

    The quercetin-based supplement was effective at reducing exercise-induced stress and the effect was more pronounced when it was combined with additional immune-modulating compounds. Unfortunately, there were many confounding factors

  97. Black tea is not significantly different from water in the maintenance of normal hydration in human subjects: results from a randomized controlled trial

    Normal tea consumption probably does not cause dehydration. British nutritional advisory committees recommend consuming extra water when consuming caffeinated beverages, but this practice may not be warranted.

  98. A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance—Part 23

    Lecithin may be useful to maintain plasma choline levels after strenuous exercise. Leucine supplementation appears to be safe for young and elderly athletes, although evidence of benefit (such as in reducing sarcopenia in elderly athletes) is lacking. Linoleic acid is widely available in the...

  99. Pleuran (β-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) supplementation, cellular immune response and respiratory tract infections in athletes

    Supplementation of 200 mg pleuran per day may attenuate the susceptibility of athletes to infections.

  100. A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance: part 24

    A triglyceride is a fat molecule composed of 3 fatty acids on a glycerol backbone. In a medium chain triglyceride (MCT), the fatty acids are 6-14 carbon atoms in length. MCTs can be metabolized by cells that line the small intestine and therefore the fatty acids can be absorbed and transported...

  101. The health benefits of cherries and potential applications in sports

    Anecdotally, cherries have been associated with health benefits. In the last 12 years, studies have indirectly supported traditional health claims. Cherries contain phenolic compounds that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Preclinical evidence has shown the effects of these...

  102. The effects of Energised Greens™ upon blood acid-base balance during resting conditions

    High intensity exercise is associated with decreased pH (increased acidity) in muscle and may affect blood pH as well. In order to attenuate the increase in acidity in the blood,ingestion of alkaline compounds and/or agents that help buffer the blood (ex. sodium bicarbonate) have been recommended....

  103. 5/3/2012 / Effects of a daily mixed nutritional supplement on physical performance, body composition, and circulating anabolic hormones during 8 weeks of arduous military training

    The military training protocol is designed to stress the soldiers maximally, to best prepare them to perform in the harshest conditions. It would be interesting to evaluate how the soldiers would perform 1) if both groups were provided adequate nutrition for a few weeks and then underwent the...

  104. 5/3/2012 / A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance- Part 27

    There is substantial evidence to recommend nitrate supplementation for endurance events in acute doses. Nootkatone and octacosanol have potential to confer health benefits, but further studies are necessary to be confident of their benefits and their biological mechanism.

  105. 5/3/2012 / Quercetin and endurance exercise capacity: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Overall, the size of the effect of quercetin on endurance capacity equates to about 3%. Practically, this effect is very small. Quercetin improved endurance performance about 5%, which is not a very large amount, but could benefit very competitive athletes or the results of very close races.

  106. 5/3/2012 / Effect of blueberry ingestion on natural killer cell counts, oxidative stress, and inflammation prior to and after 2.5 h of running.

    Daily consumption of blueberries for 6 wks led to an increase in immunity and a decrease in exercise-induced oxidative stress. One components of the blueberries that may have led to these health benefits is antioxidants including flavonoids (anthocyanins, specifically).

  107. A–Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance– Part 30

    Potassium is a mineral that is essential in muscle and nerve function. Athletes lose a small amount of potassium in sweat, though there is not strong evidence that the presence of potassium in post–workout sports beverages, in addition to sodium, speeds recovery from exercise. It is best if...

  108. Role of vitamin C and E supplementation on IL-6 in response to training

    The increased cellular metabolism associated with exercise increases production of free radicals. Because of the damaging effects of free radicals on cells, increased free radical production has historically been viewed as a negative consequence of exercise. However, it is now recognized that free...

  109. Adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP) supplements are not orally bioavailable: a randomized, placebo controlled cross-over trial in healthy humans

    ATP, as administered by supplement, was degraded in the small intestine and did not make it to the blood stream. Therefore, it will likely not provide enhancements in performance or alertness. This study administered 5000 mg of ATP, whereas most supplements for sale provide about 100-250 mg per...

  110. A to Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods, and ergogenic acids for health and performance- Part 31

    Despite the fact that most studies have been small scale, probiotics have been shown to increase the immune systems of many athletes. Pycnogenol, on the other hand, does not currently have evidence supporting health or performance claims.

  111. Acute L-arginine alpha ketoglutarate supplementation fails to improve muscular performance in resistance trained and untrained men

    An acute dose of 3.0 g of AAKG had no effect on resistance exercise performance in either trained or untrained men. Other studies have shown benefits with AAKG when it is consumed every day for at least 2 wks, though this study did not address long term ingestion of AAKG.

  112. Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation on 50 mile time trial performance in well-trained cyclists

    The most interesting finding in this study was that 3 of the 8 participants’ blood nitrate concentration did not increase after beetroot juice consumption, and these participants did not experience any gains from the supplement during their run. In contrast, the other 5 participants’...

  113. A to Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance- Part 32

    Protein, in doses of about 20 g, is recommended immediately after a workout and through the rest of the 24 hour post-workout period in order to maximize the rate of muscle protein synthesis. Animal sources of protein (meat, eggs, and especially whey) and soy protein are high quality protein...

  114. A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance- Part 33

    When taken daily, quercetin and resveratrol are promising supplements for improving the overall health and endurance of athletes. However, more research is necessary to determine the optimal doses and dosing regimens. Combinations of various healthful compounds may have synergistic ergogenic...

  115. Effect of combined β-alanine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on cycling performance

    Supplementation with β-alanine led to a 37% likelihood of increased performance and a 0% likelihood of decreased performance when taken by these highly trained cyclists for 28 days.  NaHCO3 improved their performance to a greater degree.  There was only a small additive effect of...

  116. Effects of a carbohydrate-, protein-, and ribose-containing repletion drink during 8 weeks of endurance training on aerobic capacity, endurance performance, and body composition

    Regularly consuming a post-workout beverage that contained carbohydrates, protein, ribose, vitamins, and minerals did not improve body composition or aerobic capacity any more than a beverage that had only carbohydrates. With that said, the data suggested that the beverage with protein, ribose,...

  117. A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance- Part 35

    There have not been many studies investigating the effects of supplementation with selenium or serine on sports performance, but there is not evidence to date that supports use of either of these supplements. Sibutramine, though an effective weight loss drug, offers more risk than benefit in...

  118. Improved training tolerance by supplementation with alpha-keto acids in untrained young adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Supplementation with branched chain keto acids or α-ketoglutarate improved tolerance to training and enabled untrained participants to perform and maintain high levels of intense exercise for 4 weeks. Therefore, strength and endurance was augmented in many regards. This may especially be...

  119. A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance- Part 37

    Athletes who consume supplements and functional foods tend to combine ingredients, either intentionally or unintentionally.  It is important for athletes to be aware of what they are combining to prevent negative interactions and overdoses, as well as to increase the effects of their...

  120. A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance: Part 36

    Spirulina has only recently garnered interest in the sports community and more studies are needed before any recommendations can be made. Succinate and other TCA cycle intermediates are failing to show benefits in sports performance. Sucrose may provide value to sports...

  121. No improvement in endurance performance after a single dose of beetroot juice

    A concentrated beetroot juice supplement containing 8.7 mmol nitrate did not improve performance on a time trail lasting about 1 hour long. The ability of beetroot juice to have a beneficial effect on exercise may be related to the duration and/or intensity of the exercise. A recent study...

  122. Effect of beta-alanine and carnosine supplementation on muscle contractility in mice

    This study shows that chronic supplementation with either β-alanine or carnosine can increase carnosine content in the muscle (among other β-alanine-containing molecules in mice that are not relevant in humans). Furthermore, β-alanine supplementation led to a greater contractile...

  123. A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance: Part 42

    Learn about Vanadium, Valine, and Oxygenated water, and how they affect sports performance, whether they improve strength, and more.

  124. Contemporary Sports Nutrition Abstracts and Articles

    On this page, you will find helpful sports nutrition articles and abstracts culled from 47 nutrition and exercise journals from July 2015.
    The articles below were selected only if they included research in humans, although exceptions were made for particularly interesting and...

Google Tracking Google Plus Tracking Twitter Tracking