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Approximately 71 documents matched your search.
  1. How to really eat like a hunter-gatherer: Why the Paleo diet is half-baked

    The article is summed up concisely: “the Paleo diet is founded more on privilege than on logic”. Many of the “rules” for the diet are based not on nutrition science but arbitrary history. It is likely that consuming a “healthy diet”, i.e. one that includes...

  2. The glycemic index

  3. Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise: strategies to enhance anabolism

    The combination of resistance training and protein (amino acids) leads to growth of muscle volume and strength, especially when protein/amino acids are consumed immediately after exercise.

  4. 3/4/2011 / Effect of glycogen availability on human skeletal muscle protein turnover during exercise and recovery

     Exercise with low glycogen would increase the net negative protein balance at the whole body and skeletal muscle levels compared with the high glycogen condition and this would be primarily due to an increase in protein breakdown with an additional reduction in protein synthesis.

  5. 3/4/2011 /Short-term recovery from prolonged exercise: exploring the potential for protein ingestion to accentuate the benefits of carbohydrate supplements

     The authors have written a comprehensive review article (19 pages) summarizing the currently available studies examining muscle glycogen resynthesis in response to ingesting varying amounts of carbohydrate during a short-term (ie, > 2 to 6 hours) recovery in humans. The main purpose of...

  6. Pre-race dietary carbohydrate intake can independently influence sub-elite marathon running performance

    The nutritional intake of these participants was not assessed on the days prior to the day before the marathon. It is unknown whether a habitual high carbohydrate diet (that carried over to the day before the marathon) contributed to the noted benefits, or if just a single day of high...

  7. 3/4/2011 / Effect of low- and high-glycemic-index meals on metabolism and performance during high intensity, intermittent exercise

    Ingestion of a carbohydrate-rich meal several hours before an endurance sport allows for optimal levels of liver and muscle glycogen while exercising. Carbohydrates are the preferred source of fuel for the muscle tissue, and sufficient endogenous carbohydrate stores may delay the onset of fatigue...

  8. A carbohydrate-restricted diet during resistance training promotes more favorable changes in body composition and markers of health in obese women with and without insulin resistance

    The program was successful in promoting weight loss among this population over 10 weeks, and consistent with other research, the HP diet was more efficacious than the HC diet in promoting weight loss. Among individuals with apparent insulin resistance, the results suggest that individuals in this...

  9. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: Where is the evidenc

    There is not significance evidence that any weight loss supplement is effective at promoting weight loss and keeping the weight off, but many studies are short (14 wks or less) and do not follow up with participants. A healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and exercise is recommended for...

  10. Effect of various ratios of carbohydrate-protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced muscle damage

    The authors did not provide the standard deviations/errors for their data, so it is impossible to know the inter-individual variability among their participants or gauge the practical relevance in the differences.

  11. Effect of mouth-rinsing carbohydrate solutions on endurance performance

    It has been established that ingestion of fluid during exercise maintains blood volume and prevents overheating. Carbohydrates in sports beverages have an added effect on sports performance however, interestingly, only a small amount of glucose reaches circulation during the exercise bout and...

  12. Isomaltulose improves glycemia and maintains run performance in type 1 diabetes

    In comparison with dextrose (glucose), isomaltulose helped people with type 1 diabetes avoid hyperglycemia while not compromising their athletic performance.

  13. 3/4/2011 /Low-carbohydrate diet does not affect intramyocellular lipid concentration or insulin sensitivity in lean, physically fit men when protein intake is elevated

     There are well established pathologic associations between excess adiposity and insulin resistance. However, insulin resistance has also been shown to be a short-term, rapidly adaptive, physiologic response in lean, physically fit humans. Although the mechanisms for insulin resistance in...

  14. Omega 3 Chia seed loading as a means of carbohydrate loading

    High carbohydrate (CHO) intake for several days before competition lasting >90 minutes increases muscle glycogen stores and enhances performance. High fat diets relative to high CHO diets increase fat oxidation and spare muscle glycogen, potentially increasing energy reserves. Omega 3 Chia...

  15. 3/4/2011 /Effect of milk protein addition to a carbohydrate-electrolyte rehydration solution ingested after exercise in the heat

     During exercise, sweat losses exceeding fluid intake result in a hypohydrated state. Restoration of fluid balance after exercise requires ingestion of fluid volumes greater than the volume of sweat lost. However, to maintain fluid balance the composition of the ingested solution must allow...

  16. The effects of pre-exercise glycemic index food on running capacity

    In this study, low-GI foods ingested 15 minutes before exercise prevented hyperinsulinemia, maintained blood glucose concentrations, and resulted in higher endurance running capacity. Most likely, the short interval between low-GI food ingestion and exercise initiation normalizes the action of...

  17. 3/4/2011 /Effects of pre-exercise feeding on markers of satellite cell activation

     Satellite cells are normally quiescent, myogenic stem cells located between the basement and plasma membrane. The proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, as well as their fusion with existing myofibers, are key events leading to the process of muscular hypertrophy. Acute...

  18. The effects of low and high glycemic index foods on exercise performance and beta-endorphin responses

    Carbohydrate (CHO) availability during exercise may be a key factor in preserving muscle glycogen levels via increased glucose uptake during prolonged exercise performance. Glycemic index (GI) ranks food according to the effect on blood glucose levels, and some clinical studies suggest that low GI...

  19. The effect of a carbohydrate beverage on the physiological responses during prolonged load carriage

    These results support observations of earlier studies. In addition, the RER decrease during placebo indicates an energy source change from CHO to fat, which has a lower energy yield per unit of O2 and may account, in part, for the VO2sub> rise. Maintaining a...

  20. Impact of fluid restriction and ad libitum water intake or an 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage on skill performance of elite adolescent basketball players

    • The Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.56 for knowledge score vs. behavior score, 0.75 for behavior score vs. fluid intake, and 0.76 for knowledge score. However, for some behaviors, there was a large gap between knowledge and practice. For example, 75% of the athletes knew that...

  21. 3/4/2011 / Lack of effect of a high-calorie dextrose or maltodextrin meal on postprandial oxidative stress in healthy young men

    It is common practice for athletes to ingest high doses of fast-absorbing carbohydrate (ex. maltodextrin) either during training (carb loading) or after a workout to regenerate glycogen stores. However, it has been shown that carbohydrate-rich meals, due to their large increases in postprandial...

  22. The effect of adding caffeine to postexercise carbohydrate feeding on subsequent high-intensity interval-running capacity compared with carbohydrate alone

    Twice-daily training with morning and afternoon sessions separated by a 3- to 6-hour recovery period is a commonly used schedule for various sports. To maintain training intensity in the later sessions, it is necessary to promote maximal rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis. While carbohydrate...

  23. 3/4/2011 / Carbohydrate availability and training adaptation: Effects on cell metabolism (A review)

    Historically, athletes have been advised to consume high carbohydrate diets during both training and competition to ultimately improve performance. However, recent evidence indicates that training in a carbohydrate-depleted state results in a compensatory increase in the production and/or activity...

  24. 3/4/2011 / Effect of Pleuran (ß-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) supplementation on cellular immune response after intensive exercise in elite athletes

    Intense physical activity can depress the immune system. Pleuran (Imunoglukan®) is an insoluble ß-glucan that is present in edible mushrooms. ß-glucans are available in different varieties; some have been shown to improve the immune system in athletes while others have shown no...

  25. 3/4/2011 / Low-carbohydrate diet does not affect intramyocellular lipid concentration or insulin sensitivity in lean, physically fit men when protein intake is elevated

    There are well established pathologic associations between excess adiposity and insulin resistance. However, insulin resistance has also been shown to be a short-term, rapidly adaptive, physiologic response in lean, physically fit humans. Although the mechanisms for insulin resistance in these...

  26. 3/4/2011 / Fructose and glucose co-ingestion during prolonged exercise increases lactate and glucose fluxes and oxidation compared with an equimolar intake of glucose

    During exercise, the maximum glucose (GLU) oxidation rate is 1 g/minute, regardless of exogenous glucose intake. Addition of fructose (FRU) to glucose (GLU; GLUFRU) during exercise, exogenous GLU oxidation rate can reach 1.75 g/minute. When GLUFRU is ingested during exercise, plasma lactate (LAC)...

  27. 3/4/2011 / Berberine-induced activation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and glucose transport in rat skeletal muscles

    Exercise and insulin stimulate the uptake of glucose into skeletal muscle via glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) develop insulin resistance and experience reduced uptake and metabolism of plasma glucose by skeletal muscle, resulting in hyperglycemia. Glucose...

  28. 3/4/2011 / Carbohydrate oxidation from a drink during running compared to cycling exercise

    Carbohydrate (CHO) intake improves the endurance capacity and performance of runners. However, the recommended dosage rate for CHO during prolonged exercise is not established. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends 30 to 60 g/hour of a 6% to 8% CHO solution, with glucose being the...

  29. 3/4/2011 / Carbohydrate oxidation from a carbohydrate gel compared to a drink during exercise

    Ingestion of solutions with glucose (GLU) and fructose (FRC) leads to 20%-50% higher carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation rates compared with GLU alone. It is hypothesized that a high GLU oxidation rate may be beneficial to delay fatigue, increase endurance, and enhance performance, especially late in...

  30. 3/4/2011 / Influence of high- and low-carbohydrate diet following glycogen-depleting exercise on heart rate variability and plasma catecholamines

    A short-term, low-CHO diet, consumed after glycogen-depleting exercise, would increase sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, which could be indentified by increments in heart rate variability (HRV) indexes, such low frequency (LF) and LF/HF (HF = high frequency) ratio and plasma catecholamine...

  31. 3/4/2011 / Race-day carbohydrate intakes of elite triathletes contesting Olympic-distance triathlon events

     Many official guidelines for carbohydrate intake recommend 1-4 g carbohydrates/kg body mass (85-340 g for an 85 kg or 187 lb. individual) before marathon events and then about 30-60 g/hr during the marathon. A positive relationship has been observed between total carbohydrate intake with...

  32. 3/4/2011 / Protein and carbohydrate supplementation during 5-day aerobic training enhanced plasma volume expansion and thermoregulatory adaptation in young men

     A mixture of carbohydrate and protein supplementation will increase plasma volume and albumin levels during aerobic training, which will reduce heat and cardiovascular strain Subjects: 18 healthy, young males (mean age = 24 y, mean weight = 63 kg, mean BMI = 22 kg/m2); a total of 9...

  33. 3/4/2011 / Carbohydrate mouth rinse: does it improve endurance exercise performance?

     The authors have written a brief review article (4 pages) summarizing the current state of research on the effect of carbohydrate mouth rinsing on endurance performance. The review summarizes the results of 6 major studies on this topic (Table 1 is an excellent overview of the studies). Of...

  34. 3/4/2011 / Effects of ingesting protein in combination with carbohydrate during exercise on endurance performance: a systematic meta-analysis

    This meta-analysis combined the data from 11different studies to evaluate if there are performance benefits associated with the ingestion of a combination of carbohydrate and protein versus protein alone during endurance exercise.

  35. 3/4/2011 / Effect of Pleuran (β-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) supplementation on cellular immune response after intensive exercise in elite athletes

    Intense physical activity can depress the immune system. Pleuran (Imunoglukan®) is an insoluble β-glucan that is present in edible mushrooms. β-glucans are available in different varieties; some have been shown to improve the immune system in athletes while others have shown no...

  36. 3/4/2011 /Fructose addition to a glucose supplement modifies perceived exertion during strength and endurance exercise

     It is well established that carbohydrate supplements improve exercise performance and perceived exertion (PE), particularly during long-endurance exercise. Glucose + fructose (GF), specifically, provides benefits in time to exhaustion and, therefore, in long-duration performance. However,...

  37. 3/4/2011 / Nine weeks of supplementation with a multi-nutrient product augments gains in lean mass, strength, and muscular performance in resistance trained men.

     Creatine monohydrate, carbohydrates, and protein, when consumed before or during one's workout, have consistently shown to increase the gains from resistance training. Many supplements contain these ingredients, often in conjunction with other active ingredients. It is possible that other...

  38. 3/4/2011 /Fructose and glucose co-ingestion during prolonged exercise increases lactate and glucose fluxes and oxidation compared with an equimolar intake of glucos

     During exercise, the maximum glucose (GLU) oxidation rate is 1 g/minute, regardless of exogenous glucose intake. Addition of fructose (FRU) to glucose (GLU; GLUFRU) during exercise, exogenous GLU oxidation rate can reach 1.75 g/minute. When GLUFRU is ingested during exercise, plasma lactate...

  39. 3/4/2011 /Water and solute absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions in the human proximal small intestine: a review and statistical analysis

    Intestinal fluid and nutrient absorption has been investigated in humans at rest and during exercise using a triple-lumen tube intubation perfusion technique beginning in the early 1960s. The triple-lumen tube intubation-perfusion technique provides a precise measurement of transport rate of water...

  40. 3/4/2011 /Isomaltulose improves postexercise glycemia by reducing CHO oxidation in T1DM

     Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) are encouraged to consume carbohydrates (CHO) to prevent hypoglycemia (blood glucose [BG] concentration 3.5 mmol/L) during or after exercise. However, research comparing the effects of specific types of CHO is limited. Carbohydrates with a low glycemic...

  41. 3/4/2011 /Influence of ingesting versus mouth-rinsing a carbohydrate solution during a 1 h run

    The benefits of carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during prolonged exercise have been well established. Recent studies suggest that CHO ingestion also has a positive effect on short (1 hour), intense (> 75% maximal oxygen [O2] consumption [VO2max]) endurance performance and time-trials. However, in...

  42. 3/4/2011 /Berberine-induced activation of 5-adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase and glucose transport in rat skeletal muscles

    Exercise and insulin stimulate the uptake of glucose into skeletal muscle via glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) develop insulin resistance and experience reduced uptake and metabolism of plasma glucose by skeletal muscle, resulting in hyperglycemia. Glucose...

  43. 3/4/2011 /Exercise and glycemic imbalances A situation-specific estimate of glucose supplementation

     Insulin is a hormone that stimulates body cells, including muscle, to take up glucose from the blood stream. Patients with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin and therefore must administer it themselves in conjunction with a meal. During exercise, muscle takes up glucose at a faster rate...

  44. 3/4/2011 /Omega 3 Chia seed loading as a means of carbohydrate loading

     High carbohydrate (CHO) intake for several days before competition lasting >90 minutes increases muscle glycogen stores and enhances performance. High fat diets relative to high CHO diets increase fat oxidation and spare muscle glycogen, potentially increasing energy reserves. Omega 3...

  45. Exercise and glycemic imbalances: A situation-specific estimate of glucose supplementation

    Insulin is a hormone that stimulates body cells, including muscle, to take up glucose from the blood stream. Patients with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin and therefore must administer it themselves in conjunction with a meal. During exercise, muscle takes up glucose at a faster rate than...

  46. Substrate utilization is influenced by acute dietary carbohydrate intake in active, healthy females

    Low carbohydrate diets have been promoted in both athletes and non-athletes for weight loss. The composition of a meal determines the blood levels of glucose, fat, and other nutrients and metabolites immediately after the meal as well as the metabolism of stored carbohydrates and stored fats...

  47. A combined insulin reduction and carbohydrate feeding strategy 30 min before running best preserves blood glucose concentration after exercise through improved fuel oxidation in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Type 1 diabetic patients cannot produce insulin, the hormone that signals body cells to take up glucose from the blood stream. Consequently, patients need to administer exogenous insulin with meals. Exercise can be difficult for type 1 diabetic individuals because it changes glucose metabolism and...

  48. Nutritional modulation of training-induced skeletal muscle adaptations

    Skeletal muscle is remarkably malleable and is able to adapt its metabolic and functional potential in response to both external stimuli, such as exercise, and to internal modulators, such as nutrient availability. In this review, the authors examined the effect of nutrient-exercise interactions...

  49. Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans.

    Carnitine is present in skeletal muscle and plays important roles in both low- and high intensity exercise. During low intensity, endurance exercise, carnitine is responsible for shuttling fatty acids into the mitochondria for oxidation. Oral ingestion of carnitine is hypothesized to increase the...

  50. Effect of milk protein addition to a carbohydrate-electrolyte rehydration solution ingested after exercise in the heat

    Insulin is a hormone that stimulates body cells, including muscle, to take up glucose from the blood stream. Patients with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin and therefore must administer it themselves in conjunction with a meal. During exercise, muscle takes up glucose at a faster rate than...

  51. Postexercise carbohydrate-protein supplementation improves subsequent exercise performance and intracellular signaling for protein synthesis

    Chocolate milk improved times in a time trial after glycogen-depleting exercise compared to an isocaloric carbohydrate beverage and a calorie-free beverage. It is likely that the combination of protein availability and sugar allowed the body to recover faster; the sugar aided in the replenishment...

  52. Carbohydrate Ingestion during Endurance Exercise Improves Performance in Adults

    The benefits of CHO ingestion during endurance exercise are likely due to a combination of maintaining blood glucose levels and delaying use of liver glycogen to support dropping glucose levels. This meta-analysis provides a consensus that CHO ingestion during endurance exercise is likely to...

  53. Effect of a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage, lemon tea, or water on rehydration during short-term recovery from exercise

    Consumption of CE during recovery from a 60-minute exercise produced the greatest rehydration and least diuretic effect compared with lemon tea and water. However, the differences in CHO concentration between the lemon tea and CE drinks may have affected fluid retention. In addition, the higher...

  54. Pleuran (β-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) supplementation, cellular immune response and respiratory tract infections in athletes

    Supplementation of 200 mg pleuran per day may attenuate the susceptibility of athletes to infections.

  55. Combined carbohydrate-protein supplementation improves competitive endurance exercise performance in the heat

    Addition of protein to carbohydrate sport beverages can improve performance in long, duration, hot weather endurance events. The mechanism of this benefit is not known, but the additional protein could help regulate body temperature, provide additional energy, and/or help with fluid retention.

  56. Carbohydrate-protein ingestion improves subsequent running capacity towards the end of football-specific intermittent exercise.

    Soccer players often fatigue during a match and performance suffers towards the end of the match. Carbohydrate ingestion during the game is important for glycogen replenishment. Recent studies have shown that the ingestion of protein with carbohydrates may be more effective than ingestion of...

  57. Fructose and galactose enhance postexercise human liver glycogen synthesis

    During exercise, the liver synthesizes glucose to maintain blood glucose levels and replenish glycogen stores. Fructose is taken up primarily by the liver and made into glucose and it is thought that glucose made from fructose is more often converted glycogen than secreted as opposed to being...

  58. Intermyocellular lipid content and insulin sensitivity are increased following a short-term low-glycemic index diet and exercise intervention

    Even after only 7 days of a diet and exercise intervention, these participants experienced weight loss, insulin sensitivity, and mobilization of intracellular lipids. From this short intervention, it did not appear that the low GI diet provided any additional benefit, but the authors still believe...

  59. Pre-workout carbohydrate supplementation does not affect measures of self-assessed vitality and affect in college swimmers

    Eating breakfast before swim practice did not affect mood in collegiate swimmers.

  60. Effect of combined carbohydrate-protein ingestion on markers of recovery after simulated rugby union match-play

    Physical impacts coupled with the mechanical and metabolic stresses experienced during rugby union match-play cause muscle damage evidenced by increased plasma creatine kinase and myoglobin. Interventions that limit muscle damage may relieve pain, prevent limitations of muscle function, and speed...

  61. The effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse on maximal strength and strength endurance

    CHO mouth sensing did not promote improvement in maximum strength or strength endurance. Previous positive evidence for CHO mouth rinses focused on aerobic exercise performance and showed a small effect on endurance (1% to 3%). The tests used in this study may not have been sensitive enough to...

  62. Effects of carbohydrate beverage ingestion on the salivary IgA response to intermittent exercise in the heat

    In this study, CHO ingestion did not affect the physiologic responses to exercise in the heat. Higher heart rates in the CHO group may have resulted from an initial and progressive state of dehydration in this group compared with the placebo group. It is disconcerting that the results reported for...

  63. Effects of acute carbohydrate supplementation on endurance performance a meta-analysis

    In this study, CHO ingestion either improved or impaired exercise performance depending on the type and amount of CHOs provided. The best single source of CHO ingested at a high rate was glucose polymers, possibly because of reduced osmolality and/or gastrointestinal distress. Although not...

  64. 5/3/2012 / Effects of carbohydrates-BCAAs-caffeine ingestion on performance and neuromuscular function during a 2-h treadmill run: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over placebo-controlled study

    A sports beverage with caffeine, carbohydrates, and BCAAs enhanced endurance performance compared to a beverage with very little calories. This is in part due to preservation of neuromuscular function (delaying fatigue) and providing a constant supply of available energy.

  65. The ingestion of combined carbohydrates does not alter metabolic responses or performance capacity during soccer-specific exercise in the heat compared to ingestion of a single carbohydrate

    For soccer-like exercise (a combination of high and low intensity of exercise for about 1.5 hrs) in the heat, there appears to be a slight advantage to ingesting beverages with different types of carbohydrates compared to a single type of carbohydrate. This is evidenced by a slightly higher...

  66. Chocolate milk and endurance exercise recovery: Protein balance, glycogen, and performance

    It was impossible to blind the participants as to which beverage they were consuming, which may have played a psychological role in the time to exhaustion test.

  67. Effects of isocaloric carbohydrate vs. carbohydrate-protein supplements on cycling time to exhaustion

    During a 3 hour recovery time in between exercise sessions, the addition of protein to a carbohydrate beverage did not appear to aid in restoring glycogen, calorie content being the same.

  68. Effects of a carbohydrate-, protein-, and ribose-containing repletion drink during 8 weeks of endurance training on aerobic capacity, endurance performance, and body composition

    Regularly consuming a post-workout beverage that contained carbohydrates, protein, ribose, vitamins, and minerals did not improve body composition or aerobic capacity any more than a beverage that had only carbohydrates. With that said, the data suggested that the beverage with protein, ribose,...

  69. Ingesting a high-dose carbohydrate solution during the cycle section of a simulated Olympic-distance triathlon improves subsequent run performance

    Consuming a beverage composed of 2:1 glucose:fructose at 1.8 g/min improved performance compared to a calorie-free beverage and did not upset the participants? stomachs. This is important because it shows that triathletes can safely consume carbohydrates during the race without experiencing...

  70. Carbohydrate-protein coingestion improves multiple-sprint running performance

    The carbohydrate-protein beverage improved cruising and sprinting speed compared to carbohydrate-only beverage.

  71. Contemporary Sports Nutrition Abstracts and Articles

    On this page, you will find helpful sports nutrition articles and abstracts culled from 47 nutrition and exercise journals from July 2015.
    The articles below were selected only if they included research in humans, although exceptions were made for particularly interesting and...

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