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Approximately 54 documents matched your search.
  1. How to really eat like a hunter-gatherer: Why the Paleo diet is half-baked

    The article is summed up concisely: “the Paleo diet is founded more on privilege than on logic”. Many of the “rules” for the diet are based not on nutrition science but arbitrary history. It is likely that consuming a “healthy diet”, i.e. one that includes...

  2. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)

    HMB is a safe and effective supplement for increasing muscle size and strength and quickening recovery from intense exercise.  Daily consumption of 3 g of HMB daily in 1 g doses starting about one hour before exercise is the optimal dosing regimen at this time.

  3. Weight loss, exercise, or both and physical function in obese older adults.

    Older adults are more susceptible to health problems such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis due to decreased physical functions. These symptoms are exacerbated by obesity. There are only a few studies to date investigating the risks and benefits of diet and/or exercise intervention in the...

  4. Effect of two different weight-loss rates on body composition and strength and power-related performance in elite athletes

    Athletes sometimes aim to lose weight in order to increase their power-to-weight ratio. When weight is cut too quickly, the athlete can also lose lean body mass (LBM; muscle), potentially impairing their ability to perform at a high level.

  5. Anorexia athletica in pre-professional ballet dancers

    Key practice applications:  It appears that ballet dancers do not have an increased risk of clinical AN, despite the strong pressures to be thin.  However, it may be more difficult to recognize AN in this cohort due to their already slender size, so teammates,...

  6. Hunger Training via Glucose Monitoring

    In the early 2000’s, Drs. Mario Ciampolini and Riccardo Bianchi, two weight loss specialists, noticed that conventional weight loss diets often work in the short term, but not in the long term [1,2]. They observed that when people eat, it is sometimes not to stave off hunger, but because...

  7. 3/4/2011 /Antiobesity effects of green tea catechins a mechanistic review

    Obesity and associated comorbidities are a growing health problem worldwide. Obesity can result from a very small positive energy imbalance between dietary intake and energy expenditure. The actual amount of weight gained per year in the US and Australia, on average, is only 0.5 kg, regardless of...

  8. A carbohydrate-restricted diet during resistance training promotes more favorable changes in body composition and markers of health in obese women with and without insulin resistance

    The program was successful in promoting weight loss among this population over 10 weeks, and consistent with other research, the HP diet was more efficacious than the HC diet in promoting weight loss. Among individuals with apparent insulin resistance, the results suggest that individuals in this...

  9. 3/4/2011 /Exercise training and fat metabolism after menopause: implications for improved metabolic flexibility in aging

    Both menopause and a sedentary lifestyle contribute to unhealthful lipid metabolism, an increased deposition of fat, and an increase in circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) in middle-aged and elderly women. Moreover, as a person ages, the capacity of oxygen consumption, lipid oxidation, and other...

  10. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: Where is the evidenc

    There is not significance evidence that any weight loss supplement is effective at promoting weight loss and keeping the weight off, but many studies are short (14 wks or less) and do not follow up with participants. A healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and exercise is recommended for...

  11. 3/4/2011 /Effects of whey protein isolate on body composition lipids insulin and glucose in overweight and obese individuals

    The health benefits associated with increased dairy intake may be attributable to the whey component of dairy proteins. This study evaluated the effects of whey protein supplementation on body composition, lipids, insulin, and glucose compared with casein and glucose (control) supplementation in...

  12. 3/4/2011 / Effects of capsinoid ingestion on energy expenditure and lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise

    Capsinoid ingestion 30 min prior to exercise would generally induce metabolic changes consistent with increased metabolic rate and lipid oxidation, namely: elevating resting oxygen consumption; a shift in metabolism (respiratory exchange ration [RER] towards greater lipid oxidation; and increase...

  13. 3/4/2011 / Protein-enriched meal replacements do not adversely affect liver, kidney or bone density: an outpatient randomized controlled trial

     Protein-enriched meal replacements (MR) have become increasingly popular among overweight subjects who wish to reduce their body weight. Although MRs are considered a safe and effective method for weight loss and weight management, there is growing concern that the long-term use of a high...

  14. 3/4/2011 / Myostatin expression is increased by food deprivation in a muscle-specific manner and contributes to muscle atrophy during prolonged food deprivation in mice

    Organisms experiencing food deprivation (FD) initiate various physiologic mechanisms to maintain blood glucose levels. Skeletal muscle protein serves as a crisis reserve that can be broken down to amino acids and converted into glucose by gluconeogenesis in the liver to help maintain blood glucose...

  15. Effects of caffeine on time trial performance in sedentary men

    In men who don’t typically exercise, caffeine ingestion increased the amount of work performed by during a 30 min, self-paced exercise session without increasing their perceived exertion. This is important because it may increase the rate at which overweight men lose weight, and therefore...

  16. 3/4/2011 / Alternatives to rapid weight loss in US wrestling

    The authors of this article acknowledge the widespread nature of weight cutting among US wrestlers in high school and college and that dehydration is a common strategy that wrestlers use to "make weight". They further note the detrimental effects on performance of dehydration equivalent...

  17. 3/4/2011 / Use of performance- and image-enhancing substances among recreational athletes: a quantitative analysis of inquiries submitted to the Danish anti-doping authorities

    It is difficult to determine what percentage of recreational athletes use performance- and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) world-wide, but a few questionnaires have suggested that use is not trivial. Many PIEDs include substances that have been banned by the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA) and are...

  18. 3/4/2011 / Training with low muscle glycogen enhances fat metabolism in well-trained cyclists

    Muscle glycogen is a primary source of fuel during prolonged exercise. High carbohydrate diets can increase stores of muscle glycogen, increasing the amount of time and/or intensity of an athlete's workout.

  19. 3/4/2011 / Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women

    The prevalence of obesity in the US and throughout the world continues to increase with an estimated 1.2 billion people worldwide overweight. Much research is being conducted worldwide to help identify causative mechanisms as well as programs to better manage obesity progression. A higher protein...

  20. 3/4/2011 / Effects of exercise combined with caloric restriction on inflammatory cytokines

    Chronic inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, as well as certain types of cancer. Circulating biomarkers for inflammation such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha...

  21. 3/4/2011 / Aerobic exercise training-induced decrease in plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents

     Visfatin is an adipocytokine produced by many tissues, including visceral body fat cells. Visfatin may increase insulin resistance. It has been shown that exercise reduces visfatin levels in adults, but not artificial weight loss (from gastrectomy). It is unknown whether it is the exercise...

  22. 3/4/2011 / Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study

     Assess the effects of 10 weeks of once-daily consumption of a low-calorie energy drink, either alone or in combination with exercise, on body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, upper- and lower-body strength, mood, and safety variables

  23. Exercise and diet in weight management: updating what works

    Managing one's weight is easy in theory but difficult in practice. Increasing physical activity and improving diet are "intuitively accepted" means of weight loss, but a handful of studies show that only about 30% of people in weight loss programs are successful at maintaining a loss of...

  24. 3/4/2011 / Nine weeks of supplementation with a multi-nutrient product augments gains in lean mass, strength, and muscular performance in resistance trained men.

     Creatine monohydrate, carbohydrates, and protein, when consumed before or during one's workout, have consistently shown to increase the gains from resistance training. Many supplements contain these ingredients, often in conjunction with other active ingredients. It is possible that other...

  25. 3/4/2011 / Effects of a purported aromatase and 5 a-reductase inhibitor on hormone profiles in college age men

     Testosterone levels are related to many physiologic conditions such as protein synthesis, muscle strength, fat oxidation, and adiposity. Therefore, research into improving exercise performance has focused on supplementation with testosterone precursors or derivatives to increase the levels...

  26. 3/4/2011 /Twelve weeks of endurance training increases FFA mobilization and reesterification in postmenopausal women

     The reduction of estrogen and progesterone at menopause may affect lipid metabolism and cause the body to use a greater proportion of carbohydrates as a substrate during exercise, while using a smaller proportion of fat. It has been shown that younger people have a greater capacity to break...

  27. 3/4/2011 /PAKs supplement improves immune status and body composition but not muscle strength in resistance trained individuals

     Mixed formula supplements are very popular among recreational and professional weightlifters. Often known as PAKs, these dietary supplements consist of several pills/tablets packaged in the same envelope and are meant to be ingested together. They are intended to provide the consumer with...

  28. 3/4/2011 /Effect of dihydrocapsiate on resting metabolic rate in humans

    Background: Capsaicin, which is naturally found in chili peppers, has been shown to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation, possibly through sympathetic nervous system stimulation or catecholamine release. However, the pungency of capsaicin limits its use in many individuals....

  29. 3/4/2011 /Training with low muscle glycogen enhances fat metabolism in well-trained cyclists

    Muscle glycogen is a primary source of fuel during prolonged exercise. High carbohydrate diets can increase stores of muscle glycogen, increasing the amount of time and/or intensity of an athlete?s workout. Exercise induces the transcription and translation of various genes in order for the body...

  30. 3/4/2011 /Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women

    The prevalence of obesity in the US and throughout the world continues to increase with an estimated 1.2 billion people worldwide overweight. Much research is being conducted worldwide to help identify causative mechanisms as well as programs to better manage obesity progression. A higher protein...

  31. 3/4/2011 /Physiological effects of caffeine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and exercise in overweight and obese women

     Obesity is the result of a positive energy balance and contributes to more than 300,000 deaths per year. Recent research has been particularly focused on the use of plant compounds (ie, caffeine, green tea), with a principal aim of reducing food intake and/or increasing energy expenditure....

  32. 3/4/2011 /The combined effects of exercise and ingestion of a meal replacement in conjunction with a weight loss supplement on body composition and fitness parameters in college-aged men and women

     Thermogenic products and meal replacement shakes are both popularly employed to achieve better body composition through fat loss and increased lean muscle mass. Thermogenic substances are compounds that increase metabolic rate, meaning that the body burns more calories while performing...

  33. The combined effects of exercise and ingestion of a meal replacement in conjunction with a weight loss supplement on body composition and fitness parameters in college-aged men and women

    Thermogenic products and meal replacement shakes are both popularly employed to achieve better body composition through fat loss and increased lean muscle mass. Thermogenic substances are compounds that increase metabolic rate, meaning that the body burns more calories while performing normal...

  34. Effects of omega-3 supplementation in combination with diet and exercise on weight loss and body composition

    Omega-3 fatty acids may have a weight loss-enhancing benefit. Preclinical results in animal models suggest that omega-3 fatty acids promote weight loss through various mechanisms including increased fat oxidation, adiponectin, suppression of fat deposition, adipocyte apoptosis, and/or appetite...

  35. Anthropometric characteristics and nutritional profile of young amateur swimmers

    Adolescents involved in intense training practices often consume inadequate amounts of vitamins, minerals, fluid, carbohydrates, and even energy. This can decrease their performance in sport and daily activities, and could potentially hinder growth and development.

  36. Bioavailable IGF-I is associated with fat-free mass gains after physical training in women

    Bioavailable IGF-I correlates better with increases in fat free muscle mass than total circulating IGF-I. This could be of clinical significance, because it showed that women who initiate training with lower than average concentrations of bioavailable IGF-I have greater potential to gain muscle...

  37. Changes in body mass alone explain almost all of the variance in the serum sodium concentrations during prolonged exercise. Has commercial influence impeded scientific endeavour?

    Overconsumption of water or electrolyte-rich sports beverages can increase the risk for EAH and EAHE. The author claims that, although these findings have been shown in the scientific literature, companies and associations can distort or overshadow the findings in order to sell sports products...

  38. Effects of exercise on bone mass in young women with anorexia nervosa

    As in healthy women, those who have had anorexia display a positive correlation between high intensity exercise and BMD and the effect was greater in participants who had recovered from anorexia. However, there was a negative association between moderate exercise while ill and BMD. With that said,...

  39. Nutritional, lifestyle, and weight control practices of professional jockies

    It appears from this study that jockies in Ireland typically resort to several dietary and lifestyle practices that could be considered unhealthy in their attempts to lose weight. It is not clear if these behaviors can be generalized to other jockies. However, nutritional and lifestyle education...

  40. quercitin, vitamin C, niacin, body mass, body weight, body composition, weight control

    This study showed no apparent effects of quercitin supplementation on body mass or composition within a large cohort of subjects. The study had a large sample size and may be representative of how many people in the general population might use a quercitin supplement (e.g., adding it to normal...

  41. A structured diet and exercise program promotes favorable changes in weight loss, body composition, and weight maintenance

    Before the authors started the study, they specified that compliance for the supervised exercise program would be defined as attendance at 80% of the 102 scheduled exercise sessions. However, they did not report how many participants did not comply with the exercise sessions. It is not clear what...

  42. Whey protein but not soy protein supplementation alters body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese adults

    Dietary manipulation is one potential method to control hunger and energy intake. Short-term studies have suggested that dietary protein is more satiating than isoenergetic intake of fat or carbohydrate. Long-term studies of increased protein intake have yielded conflicting outcomes regarding body...

  43. Impact of a combined diet and progressive exercise intervention for overweight and obese children: the B.E. H.I.P. study

    Interpretation of findings/Key practice applications: The intervention successfully ameliorated the physiologic profiles of overweight and obese children. However, the amount, intensity, and type of physical activities necessary to achieve optimal results have not been...

  44. Long-term effect of nutritional counseling on desired gain in body mass and lean body mass in elite athletes

    Coincidently, the athletes who had nutritional intervention were, on average, slightly younger than those in the other group. Age-related ease of changing body composition could have affected the results.

  45. The association of a high drive for thinness with energy deficiency and severe menstrual disturbances: confirmation in a large population of exercising women

    Interpretation of findings/Key practice applications: These results confirm earlier reports correlating DT with energy deficiency in exercising women. Additionally, DT was associated with suppressed reproductive function. However, energy intake and physical activity were...

  46. Is lost lean mass from intentional weight loss recovered during weight regain in postmenopausal women?

    A large portion of weight that was lost during the intervention period was regained by most of the women in this study during the 12 mo after intervention. The weight that was regained had proportionally more fat than the weight that was lost. This emphasizes that healthy dietary habits and...

  47. Long-term effect of weight loss on body composition and performance in elite athletes

    Weight loss is desired by some elite athletes for a variety of reasons. The current recommendation is to lose no more than 0.5-1.0 kg per week (about 1-2 lbs) in order to maintain lean body mass and performance in the sport.

  48. Comparison of diet consumption, body composition and lipoprotein lipid values of Kuwaiti fencing players with international norms

    Fencing is a combat sport that requires both aerobic and anaerobic activity. Many Kuwaiti fencers are not educated on healthy nutritional practices to maximize health and performance in their sport.

  49. Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during diet- and exercise-induced weight loss promotes fat mass loss and lean mass gain in overweight and obese premenopausal women

    While engaging in a diet and exercise program, consuming a high protein, high dairy (low fat dairy, specifically) was more effective at retaining lean muscle mass while overweight and obese women lost weight. From this experiment, also, it is hypothesized that the higher intakes of calcium led to...

  50. The body composition, nutritional knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and future education needs of senior schoolboy rugby players in Ireland

    Rugby is a high intensity sport that is gaining popularity in the US and other parts of the world. Irish school-age students are given courses on basic nutrition but not sport-specific advice.

  51. 5/3/2012 / Effects of a daily mixed nutritional supplement on physical performance, body composition, and circulating anabolic hormones during 8 weeks of arduous military training

    The military training protocol is designed to stress the soldiers maximally, to best prepare them to perform in the harshest conditions. It would be interesting to evaluate how the soldiers would perform 1) if both groups were provided adequate nutrition for a few weeks and then underwent the...

  52. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    All participants, regardless of gender or diet composition, lost approximately 10% total body mass in 12 months on a calorie-deficit diet. It is important to consume protein during caloric deficit periods in order to maintain lean muscle mass. When in search of a weight loss diet, it is most...

  53. Dietary protein to maximize resistance training: a review and examination of protein spread and change theories

    These data support both the protein spread theory and the protein change theory.  For individuals, these data suggest that an approximate 20% increase in dietary protein- an approximate increase of about 1.31 g protein/kg body weight/day to equal a total of about 2.09 g/kg/day total is an...

  54. Contemporary Sports Nutrition Abstracts and Articles

    On this page, you will find helpful sports nutrition articles and abstracts culled from 47 nutrition and exercise journals from July 2015.
    The articles below were selected only if they included research in humans, although exceptions were made for particularly interesting and...

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